Dig Deeper:

Bang HS, Lee J-H, Kwon OS, Na YE, Jang YS, Kim WH. (2005). Effects of paracoprid dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on the growth of pasture herbage and on the underlying soil. Applied Soil Ecology 29: 165–171.

Bertone, M. A., Green, J. T., Washburn, S. P., Poore, M. H., and Watson, D. W. (2006). The contribution of tunneling dung beetles to pasture soil nutrition. Online. Forage and Grazing lands doi:10.1094/FG-2006-0711-02-RS.

Blume RR, Matter JJ, Eschle JL. (1973). Onthophagus gazella: effect on survival of horn flies in the laboratory. Environmental Entomology 2: 811-813.

Bornemissza GF. (1970). Insectary studies on the control of dung breeding flies by the activity of the dung beetle, Onthophagus gazella F. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 9: 31-41.

Brown J, Scholtz CH, Janeau J-L, Grellier S, Podwojewski P. (2010). Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) can improve soil hydrological properties. Applied Soil Ecology, 46(1): 9-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2010.05.010.

Bryan RP (1976) The effect of the dung beetle, Onthophagus gazella, on the ecology of the infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 27, 567–574. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AR9760567

Doube BM. (2005). The impact of the activity of the late summer/autumn-active dung beetle Geotrupes spiniger on soil and water properties in the field. Final Report. Dairy SA, February: 23pp.

Doube BM. (2006). The impact of dung burial by Bubas bison and Geotrupes spiniger on earthworm populations in the Central Highlands of Victoria. Final Report, Central Catchments Water: 23pp.

Doube BM. (2008). The pasture growth and environmental benefits of dung beetles to the southern Australian cattle industry. Meat & Livestock Industry, North Sydney, NSW. ISBN: 9781741912814: 192pp.

Doube BM, Macqueen A, Fay HAC. (1988). Effects of Dung Fauna on Survival and Size of Buffalo Flies (Haematobia spp.) Breeding in the Field in South Africa and Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology 25: 523-536.

Dymock JJ. (1993). A case for the introduction of additional dung burying beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) into New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 36:163-171.

Edwards P. (2007). Introduced Dung Beetles in Australia 1967-2007: current status and future directions, Landcare Australia: 82pp.

Fay HAC, Macqueen A, Doube BM, Kerr JD. (1990). Impact of fauna on mortality and size of Haematobia spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) in dung pads in Australia and South Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research 80: 385–392.

Fincher GT. (1973). Dung beetles as biological control agents for gastrointestinal parasites of livestock. Journal of Parasitology 59 (2): 396-399.

Fincher G T. (1975). Effects of dung beetle activity on the number of nematode parasites acquired by grazing cattle. Journal of Parasitology 61: 759-762.

Fincher GT. (1981). The potential value of dung beetles in pasture ecosystems. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 16(1): 316-333.

Fincher GT, Monson WG, Burton GW. (1981). Effects of cattle feces rapidly buried by dung beetles on yield and quality of coastal Bermuda grass. Agronomy Journal 73: 775-779.

Fincher GT, Stewart TB. (1979). Vertical migration by nematode larvae of cattle parasites through soil. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society, Washington 46: 43-46.

Forgie SA. (2009). Reproductive activity of Onthophagus granulatus Boheman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in New Zealand: Implications for its effectiveness in the control of pastoral dung. New Zealand Entomologist 32: 76-84.

Graczyk TK, Fayer R, Knight R, Mhangami-Ruwende B, Trout JM, Da Silva AJ, Pieniazek N J. (2000). Mechanical transport and transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by wild filth flies. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 63(3): 178-183.

Gronvold, J., Sommer, C., Holter, P. & Nansen P. (1992) Reduced Splash Dispersal of Bovine Parasitic Nematodes from Cow Pats by the Dung Beetle Diastellopalpus-Quinquedens. Journal of Parasitology, 78, 845-848.

Holter P. (1997). Methane emissions from Danish cattle dung pats in the field. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 29(1): 31-37.

Holter P, Scholtz CH, Wardaugh KG. (2002). Dung feeding in adult scarabaeines (tunnellers and endocoprids): even large dung beetles eat small particles. Ecological Entomology 27: 169-176.

Jarvis SC, Lovell RD, Panayides R. (1995). Patterns of methane emission from excreta of grazing animals. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27(12): 1581-1588.

Le Jambre LF. (2009). Dung beetles and internal parasites of sheep. Final Report prepared for Meat and Livestock Australia (SUPER PIRD ref.: S2005/NO3). Granite Borders Landcare Committee, Tenterfield, NSW, Australia: 21pp

Losey JE, Vaughan M. (2006). The economic value of ecological services provided by insects. BioScience 56(4), 311-323.

Macqueen A, Beirne BP. (1975). Effects of cattle dung and dung beetle activity on growth of beardless wheatgrass in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 55: 961-967.

Marten GC, Donker JD. (1966). Animal excrement as a factor influencing acceptability of grazed forage. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Grassland Congress, Helsinki: 359-363.

Mcdowell R, Cox N,  Snelder T. (2017). Assessing the Yield and Load of Contaminants with Stream Order: Would Policy Requiring Livestock to Be Fenced Out of High-Order Streams Decrease Catchment Contaminant Loads Journal of Environment Quality. 46. 1038. 10.2134/jeq2017.05.0212.

Miller A. (1961). The mouthparts and digestive tract of adult dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae) with reference to the ingestion of helminth eggs. Journal of Parasitology 47:735– 744.

Miller A, Chi-Rodriquez E, Nichols RL. (1961). The fate of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in human feces ingested by dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 10: 748–754.

Nelson W, Harris B. (2006). Flies, fingers, fomites, and food. Campylobacteriosis in New Zealand_food-associated rather than food-borne. The New Zealand Medical Journal 119 (1240): 1-7.

Nichols E, Spector S, Louzada J, Larsen T, Amezquita S, Favila ME. (2008). Ecological functions and ecosystem services provided by Scarabaeinae dung beetles. Biological Conservation 141: 1461-1474.

Richardson P, Richardson R. (2000). Dung beetles and their effects on soil. Ecological Restoration 18:116-117.

Ridsdill-Smith TJ, Edwards PB. Biological control: ecosystem functions provided by dung beetles Chapter 12. In: Simmons LW, Ridsdill-Smith TJ (Eds), Ecology and evolution of dung beetles. Wiley Blackwell.

Ridsdill-Smith TJ, Matthiessen JN. (1988). Bush fly, Musca vetustissima Walker (Diptera, Muscidae), control in relation to seasonal abundance of scarabaeinae dung beetle affix (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in south-western Australia. Bulletin of Entomological Research 78: 633-639.

Ryan U, Yang R, Cameron G, Doube B (2011). Effect of dung burial by the dung beetle Bubas bison on numbers and viability of Crytposporidium oocysts in cattle dung. Experimental Parasitology 129: 1-4.

Waterhouse DF. (1974). The biological control of dung. Scientific American 230: 100-109.

Whitehead D. (2009). A dairy farm is not greenhouse gas neutral. Landcare Research article prepared for Dairy NZ Ltd. 4 pp.